Vaccination is still regarded as one of the greatest scientific and public health achievements of the 20th century and has greatly reduced the burden of infectious diseases.
Vaccines are preparations of killed, inactivated or sub-units derived from bacteria or viruses. These preparations produce an immune response in the body and in turn provides the body with immunity to the microorganism. Adjuvants are components of vaccines that are commonly used to improve the potency of vaccines. Adjuvants are present in most of the modern more defined vaccines.
Next-generation adjuvants consists of safe delivery vehicles combined with molecularly defined immunomodulators. These adjuvants are more potent and safer than their predecessors and are used to boost the immunogenicity of modern vaccines, by enhancing the body’s immune response to the antigens. These adjuvants have several added benefits when combined with vaccines. Next-generation adjuvants have dose sparing effects and less antigen may be required to achieve the same level of protection. Vaccines are also affording broader protection in individuals against multiple pathogen strains as adjuvants increases cross-neutralisation. Next-generation adjuvants also further enhance neutralizing antibody response and induce the cell-mediated immunity. Through new vaccine and new adjuvant technologies diseases that were previously difficult to address can now be challenged.
Afrigen’s adjuvant formulation library consists of emulsions and liposomes which may incorporate one or more immunostimulatory ligands such as Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, which when bound to the TLR, will initiate a cascade of events that lead to humoral and/or cellular immune responses.
Encapsulation technologies are beneficial to extend the shelf life of the product, reduce evaporation and degradation, prevent intermolecular interaction, improve sensory characteristics, control the release of bioactive compounds and enhance the bioavailability of active compounds
Product encapsulation can be achieved with spray-drying, extrusion, co-crystallisation, emulsions and liposomes, etc.
Emulsion systems are used widely in foods, cosmetics, agriculture, and pharmaceuticals for the preparation of drugs and drug delivery systems. An emulsion is a fine dispersion of small droplets of one liquid in another in which it is not soluble or miscible. Oil-in-water emulsions consist of emulsified oil droplets in an aqueous bulk phase, while water-in-oil emulsions consist of emulsified water droplets in an oily bulk phase. Double emulsions are simply defined as an emulsion in an emulsion, where two liquids are separated by a third liquid which is not miscible with the first two liquids.
At Afrigen we manufacture stable nanoemulsions consisting of biocompatible and metabolizable components to be used as advanced delivery system for vaccines, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. Our nanoemulsions are stable for long periods of time due to their homogeneity and small size (20-500nm).
A liposome is a nano-sized spherical-shaped vesicle that is composed of one or more phospholipid bilayers, and an aqueous core. Liposomes are thus useful for encapsulated both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active substances. Due to the similarity between the liposomes naturally derived phospholipids and the composition of cell membranes, liposomes are ideal drug delivery vehicles and are known to improve the bioavailability of drugs.”